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Optical Fiber Technology

Optical Fibers photographic   The optical fiber concept has been around for more than a century. From the early experiments by John Tyndall in the guided transmission light, through the development of light-emitting diodes and lasers, and the emergence of dense wavelength-division multiplexing, the applications for optical fiber have continued to grow. Today, optical fiber technologies permeate a variety of industries. For instance, delivering high-definition broadcast (HDTV) at resolutions of 1080p has become possible through the deployment of fiber-to-the-curb (FTTc or FTTh) networks. Satellites transporting L-Band signals over fiber do not need to be demodulated, and also suffer less attenuation.
 
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Fiber Optics Glossary

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Coupling Ratio/Loss (CR, CL)


The ratio/loss of optical power from one output port to the total output power, expressed as a percent. For a 1 x 2 WDM or coupler with output powers O1 and O2, and Oi representing both output powers:

CR(%) = (Oi/(O1 + O2)) x 100% and
CR(%) = -10·Log10 (Oi/(O1 + O2)).