Optical Fiber Technology

Optical Fibers photographic   The optical fiber concept has been around for more than a century. From the early experiments by John Tyndall in the guided transmission light, through the development of light-emitting diodes and lasers, and the emergence of dense wavelength-division multiplexing, the applications for optical fiber have continued to grow. Today, optical fiber technologies permeate a variety of industries. For instance, delivering high-definition broadcast (HDTV) at resolutions of 1080p has become possible through the deployment of fiber-to-the-curb (FTTc or FTTh) networks. Satellites transporting L-Band signals over fiber do not need to be demodulated, and also suffer less attenuation.
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Fiber Optics Glossary

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Dispersion Penalty

Dispersion Penalty

The result of dispersion in which pulses and edges smear making it difficult for the receiver to distinguish between ones and zeros. This results in a loss of receiver sensitivity compared to a short fiber and measured in dB. The equations for calculating dispersion penalty are as follows:

ω = Laser spectral width (nm)
Dλ = Fiber dispersion (ps/nm/km)
τ = System dispersion (ps/km)
f = Bandwidth-distance product of the fiber (Hz • km)
L = Fiber length (km)
FF = Fiber bandwidth (Hz)
C = A constant equal to 0.5
FR = Receiver data rate (b/s)
dBL = Dispersion penalty (dB)