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Types of Optical Fiber


Understanding the characteristics of different fiber types aides in understanding the applications for which they are used. Operating a fiber optic system properly relies on knowing what type of fiber is being used and why. There are two basic types of fiber: multimode fiber and single-mode fiber. Multimode fiber is best designed for short transmission distances, and is suited for use in LAN systems and video surveillance. Single-mode fiber is best designed for longer transmission distances, making it suitable for long-distance telephony and multichannel television broadcast systems.



Multimode Fiber

Multimode fiber, the first to be manufactured and commercialized, simply refers to the fact that numerous modes or light rays are carried simultaneously through the waveguide. Modes result from the fact that light will only propagate in the fiber core at discrete angles within the cone of acceptance. This fiber type has a much larger core diameter, compared to single-mode fiber, allowing for the larger number of modes, and multimode fiber is easier to couple than single-mode optical fiber. Multimode fiber may be categorized as step-index or graded-index fiber. Multimode Step-index Fiber
Figure 2 shows how the principle of total internal reflection applies to multimode step-index fiber. Because the core's index of refraction is higher than the cladding's index of refraction, the light that enters at less than the critical angle is guided along the fiber.

Figure 2 - Total Internal Reflection in Multimode Step-index fiber

Total Internal Reflection in Multimode Step-index fiber
Three different lightwaves travel down the fiber. One mode travels straight down the center of the core. A second mode travels at a steep angle and bounces back and forth by total internal reflection. The third mode exceeds the critical angle and refracts into the cladding. Intuitively, it can be seen that the second mode travels a longer distance than the first mode, causing the two modes to arrive at separate times. This disparity between arrival times of the different light rays is known as dispersion, and the result is a muddied signal at the receiving end. For a more detailed discussion of dispersion, see "Dispersion in Fiber Optic Systems" however, it is important to note that high dispersion is an unavoidable characteristic of multimode step-index fiber. Multimode Graded-index Fiber
Graded-index refers to the fact that the refractive index of the core gradually decreases farther from the center of the core. The increased refraction in the center of the core slows the speed of some light rays, allowing all the light rays to reach the receiving end at approximately the same time, reducing dispersion.
Figure 3 - Multimode Graded-index Fiber

Multimode Graded-index Fiber
Figure 3 shows the principle of multimode graded-index fiber. The core's central refractive index, nA, is greater than that of the outer core's refractive index, nB. As discussed earlier, the core's refractive index is parabolic, being higher at the center. As Figure 3 shows, the light rays no longer follow straight lines; they follow a serpentine path being gradually bent back toward the center by the continuously declining refractive index. This reduces the arrival time disparity because all modes arrive at about the same time. The modes traveling in a straight line are in a higher refractive index, so they travel slower than the serpentine modes. These travel farther but move faster in the lower refractive index of the outer core region.

Single-mode Fiber

Single-mode fiber allows for a higher capacity to transmit information because it can retain the fidelity of each light pulse over longer distances, and it exhibits no dispersion caused by multiple modes. Single-mode fiber also enjoys lower fiber attenuation than multimode fiber. Thus, more information can be transmitted per unit of time. Like multimode fiber, early single-mode fiber was generally characterized as step-index fiber meaning the refractive index of the fiber core is a step above that of the cladding rather than graduated as it is in graded-index fiber. Modern single-mode fibers have evolved into more complex designs such as matched clad, depressed clad and other exotic structures.

Figure 4 -

Single-mode Fiber
Single-mode fiber has disadvantages. The smaller core diameter makes coupling light into the core more difficult. The tolerances for single-mode connectors and splices are also much more demanding. Single-mode fiber has gone through a continuing evolution for several decades now. As a result, there are three basic classes of single-mode fiber used in modern telecommunications systems. The oldest and most widely deployed type is non dispersion-shifted fiber(NDSF). These fibers were initially intended for use near 1310 nm. Later, 1550 nm systems made NDSF fiber undesirable due to its very high dispersion at the 1550 nm wavelength. To address this shortcoming, fiber manufacturers developed, dispersion-shifted fiber(DSF), that moved the zero-dispersion point to the 1550 nm region. Years later, scientists would discover that while DSF worked extremely well with a single 1550 nm wavelength, it exhibits serious nonlinearities when multiple, closely-spaced wavelengths in the 1550 nm were transmitted in DWDM systems. Recently, to address the problem of nonlinearities, a new class of fibers were introduced. These are classified as non zero-dispersion-shifted fibers (NZ-DSF). The fiber is available in both positive and negative dispersion varieties and is rapidly becoming the fiber of choice in new fiber deployment. For more information on this loss mechanism, see the article "Fiber Dispersion."

Figure 6 - Dispersion for Alternating 20 km Lengths of (+D) NZ-DSF and (-D) NZ-DSF Fiber

Dispersion for Alternating 20 km Lengths of (+D) NZ-DSF and (-D) NZ-DSF Fiber

Figure 7 -

Cross-section of Polarization-maintaining Fiber
One additional important variety of single-mode fiber is polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber. All other single-mode fibers discussed so far have been capable of carrying randomly polarized light. PM fiber is designed to propagate only one polarization of the input light. This is important for components such as external modulators that require a polarized light input. Figure 7 shows the cross-section of a type of PM fiber. This fiber contains a feature not seen in other fiber types. Besides the core, there are two additional circles called stress rods. As their name implies, these stress rods create stress in the core of the fiber such that the transmission of only one polarization plane of light is favored. Single-mode fibers experience nonlinearities that can greatly affect system performance. For complete information, see "Fiber Nonlinearities."